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巴西圣路易斯歷史中心區振興項目景觀設計 | Natureza Urbana

NaturezaUrbana 2021-08-18
原創
  • 項目名稱:
    圣路易斯歷史中心區振興項目
  • 項目地點:
    巴西馬拉尼昂州圣路易斯
  • 項目規模:
    225850 m2
  • 設計公司:
  • 委托方:
    IDB 國際開發銀行,圣路易斯市政府
  • 建成時間:
    2020年
  • 圖片來源:
    Meireles Junior

Natureza Urbana建筑事務所日前在巴西馬拉尼昂州的歷史文化中心——圣路易斯完成了一個大規模的城市振興項目,致力于打造公共空間,增強現有建筑遺產之間的聯系,并為本地小微企業帶來更繁榮的市場環境。

The architectural firm Natureza Urbana has just completed an extensive urban revitalization at the historic center of S?o Luís – Maranh?o, focused on qualifying public spaces, improving the interlocution with the existing heritage and boosting the local micro-entrepreneurs market.


▼俯瞰圖

Aerial view ? Meireles Junior

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此項目是振興馬拉尼昂州首府具有悠久歷史的城市中心計劃的一部分,由美洲開發銀行(IDB)籌資。本事務所領銜三個重要的振興項目:仁慈廣場(Pra?a da Misericórdia)、紹達德廣場(Pra?a da Saudade),以及Vitorino Freire大道上的公交總站旁的主教噴泉(Fonte do Bispo)。“城市更新是改造城市公共空間,尤其是那些具有歷史和文化價值的場地,幫助它們融入不斷變化的城市形態中的策略性工具。” Natureza Urbana的城市規劃師和合伙人Manoela Machado說到。

The projects were part of a program created to revitalize the historic city center of the state capital of Maranh?o, financed by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The firm led 3 important renovations: one at ‘Pra?a da Misericórdia’ (Mercy Square), other at ‘Pra?a da Saudade’ (Saudade Square) and another at Fonte do Bispo (Bishop's Fountain), an area around a bus station on Vitorino Freire Avenue. "Requalification projects are a strategic tool to update the use of public spaces - especially those with historical and cultural value –, and insert them in new urban dynamics," says Manoela Machado, urban planner and partner at Natureza Urbana.


▼仁慈廣場鳥瞰

Bird-eye’s view of Pra?a da Misericórdia ? Meireles Junior

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▼紹達德廣場鳥瞰

Bird-eye’s view of Pra?a da Saudade ? Meireles Junior

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▼主教噴泉鳥瞰

Bird-eye’s view of Bishop's Fountain ? Meireles Junior

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設計動機 

Motives


項目最初是為了解決公交總站周邊長約2公里的海岸線附近的治安問題,鼓勵大眾使用這些空間需要城市設計的干預。而其他城市廣場也面臨同樣的問題,因此產生了聯合改造的計劃。2018年,在IDB的資助下,圣路易斯市政府啟動了三項城市干預項目,并委托Natureza Urbana主持設計。

The initial motivation for the revitalization were the security problems around the 2-kilometers shoreline that surrounds the bus terminal, indicating that only an urban intervention would be able to encourage the use of these spaces by the public. The same problem could be also found in other squares of the city, which inspired a joint transformation. In 2018, with financing from the IDB, S?o Luís city hall started the 3 interventions coordinated by Natureza Urbana.


▼改造范圍覆蓋2公里的海岸地區

the revitalization around the 2-kilometers shoreline ? Natureza Urbana

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▼改造后的廣場成為了人們喜愛的休閑場地

After the reviatlization, the squares become citizens‘ beloved spaces ? Meireles Junior

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在公共參與的設計過程中,人們表達了對城市的愿景,并在工作坊中分享信息、提出建議。社工小隊登記了所有小販,確保設計方案為他們的報攤、小攤位或是餐車(如自行車搭建的廚房)等預留了空間。

In a participatory process, the population expressed its vision and participated sharing information and suggestions through workshops. Teams of social workers registered the peddlers in order to guarantee that all of them would be considered into the new spaces, either through kiosks, small stalls or adapted vehicles such as bike foods (ideal for street vendors).


▼設計為小商販預留了店鋪空間

All the peddlers are considered into the new space ? Meireles Junior

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公交總站與主教噴泉  

Fonte do Bispo and bus terminal


改造后,公交總站周邊地區擁有了滑板公園、游樂場、運動和環境教育空間,以及互動噴泉和售貨亭等設施,使超過150人受益。

Just around the Bus Terminal, more than 150 people benefited from the project, which brought the construction of a skateboard park, a playground and an area for sports and environmental education, as well as an interactive water fountain and many kiosks for the merchants.


▼改造之前的公交總站 

Bus Terminal before intervention ? Meireles Junior

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▼改造之后的公交車站 

Bus Terminal after intervention ? Meireles Junior

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▼滑板公園 

Skateboard park ? Meireles Junior

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▼游樂空間 

Playground ? Meireles Junior

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▼可供攀爬的斜坡 

Climbing ramps ? Meireles Junior

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▼運動空間 

Area for sports ? Meireles Junior

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▼改造后的公交站臺 

Bus terminal after renovation ? Meireles Junior

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▼供等車的乘客休息的座椅

Seats for passengers ? Meireles Junior

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▼主教噴泉平面圖及剖面圖 

The plan and section of Bishop's Fountain ?Natureza Urbana

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紹達德廣場

Pra?a da Saudade


紹達德廣場從前被小販無序占用,環境惡劣,人們很少在此聚集或休憩。該場地位于一片公墓旁,因此得名(葡萄牙語中紹達德Saudades意為想念愛慕之人),也因而有許多臨時的賣花貨攤。

At ‘Pra?a da Saudade’, previously irregularly occupied by peddlers and deeply degraded, the use of the area as a meeting and leisure spot was limited. The place is located next to a cemetery, hence its name (Saudades means ‘to miss someone you love’), and was occupied by many improvised flower stalls.


▼改造前后的紹達德廣場俯瞰圖

Aerial view of Saudade Square before and after intervention ? Meireles Junior

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040-SAU-AFTER-Aerea.jpg

▼改造前后的商販區

Flower stalls before and after intervention ? Meireles Junior

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Natureza Urbana提出了一個倡導團結、組織以及更好的利用現有空間的方案,幫助小吃攤、報亭以及出租車停靠站等具有地方特色的設施融入環境。場地原為一塊缺少綠化的巨大水泥廣場,經過改造后,廣場擁有了鋪滿草坪的斜坡,綠化面積顯著增加,此外還新建了石質的看臺座椅和花店區,為前往公墓的人們提供了更多的建筑設施。屋頂結構由多層薄木板粘連在一起構成,木材來自再造林地。屋頂以及其余空間都有一種流動的美感,讓人想起倫索伊斯?馬拉年塞斯國家公園(Len?óis Maranhenses)里的沙丘。

Natureza Urbana proposed a project that provides unity, organization and a better use of the existing free area, in addition to enabling the integration of local equipment such as food stalls, magazines stalls and taxi stops. Previously characterized by a large cemented area and a lack of green, the square gained grass mounds to expand the vegetation, masonry bleachers and new space for florists, who now serve the cemetery visitors with more structure. The roofs are made of glued laminated wood from reforestation. Both the roofing elements and the rest of the space have a fluid aesthetic, in reference to the Len?óis Maranhenses’ sand dunes.


▼多用途的斜坡草坪 

Grass mounds with multiple functions ? Meireles Junior   

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▼石質看臺坐椅

Masonry bleachers ? Meireles Junior

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▼有頂棚遮陰的店鋪區

Stalls with a roof ? Meireles Junior

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▼充滿流動性的屋頂結構和場地設計元素

Roofing elements and the rest of the space have a fluid aesthetic ? Meireles Junior

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▼紹達德廣場俯視圖 

Aerial view of Saudade Square ? Meireles Junior

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▼紹達德廣場平面圖 

Plan of Saudade Square ?Natureza Urbana

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▼紹達德廣場剖面圖 

Sections of Saudade Square ?Natureza Urbana

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仁慈廣場

Pra?a da Misericórdia


仁慈廣場是城中最古老的廣場,由于位于仁慈醫院前,導致廣場人流量很大,面臨著和其他兩個廣場不同的挑戰。雖然場地依舊保留著部分殖民時期廣場的典型設計元素,如從廣場中央的雕塑像四周的草地輻射開來的步道等,但遺產保護迫在眉睫。

At ‘Pra?a da Misericórdia’, one of the oldests squares in the city placed in front of the Santa Casa da Misericórdia Hospital (where there is a great flow of people), other challenges were faced. Although the place retained some classic design traces of the colonial squares – such as the central sculpture from which trails radiate over the lawns –, the place demanded urgent conservation initiatives.


▼改造前后的仁慈廣場

Mercy Square before and after intervention ? Meireles Junior

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為了讓空間更加開放,對步行者更友好,設計拆除了原有的圍墻。Natureza Urbana提出了更換城市家具,改善景觀并升級鋪裝等改造方案,讓鵝卵石鋪裝的小路重煥新生,同時提高了道路的可達性。此外,設計團隊還提出了供本地工人使用的標準化商業空間方案。

The wall surrounding the perimeter was removed in order to make the area more accessible and pleasant for pedestrians. It was up to Natureza Urbana to propose the replacement of urban furniture, adapt the landscaping and update the paving, both revitalizing the cobblestone flooring and creating paths focused on accessibility. The standardization of commercial spaces where the local workers operate was also proposed.


▼改造前后俯瞰圖

Aerial view before and after ? Meireles Junior

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▼設計提升了道路的可達性

Improved accessibility ? Meireles Junior

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▼簡潔的石質長凳作為種植區的邊界

Masonary benches as borders of planting areas ? Meireles Junior

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▼商業區域

Commercial spaces ? Meireles Junior

14.jpg▼仁慈廣場平面圖 

Plan of Mercy Square ?Natureza Urbana

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結語 

Conclusion


這項城市振興工程非常成功,甚至推動了廣場周圍建筑的更新改造。在項目委托人的倡議下,這些建筑得到了修繕,外立面色彩與廣場相呼應,這證明了城市設計上的干預能有效激發社會變革 。

The revitalization was so successful that it motivated the requalification of the buildings facing the square. As an initiative of the owners, they received improvements and paintings aligned with the new local phase, proving the thesis that urban interventions are a powerful tool for social transformation.


▼項目推動了廣場周邊的建筑改造

Project motivated the requalification of the buildings facing the square ?Natureza Urbana

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項目信息 

項目名稱:圣路易斯歷史中心區振興項目

設計公司:Natureza Urbana

項目地址:巴西馬拉尼昂州圣路易斯

委托方:IDB 國際開發銀行,圣路易斯市政府

項目面積:225850 m2

建成時間:2020年

攝影:Meireles Junior

Project name: Urban Projects in S?o Luís

Design: Natureza Urbana

Location: Maranh?o,  S?o Luís, Brazil

Clients: Banco de Desenvolvimento Internacional BID, Prefeitura de S?o Luís

Area: 225850 m2

Completion time: 2020

Photography: Meireles Junior



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